Saturday, December 20, 2014

When I Think of Child Development

-John F. Kennedy

“It is easier to build strong children than to repair men.”
-Frederick Douglass

Douglass, F. (1855?) Frederick Douglass. Goodreads. Retrieved 2014, December) from:

Kennedy, J. (1963) Ready reference: John F. Kennedy quotations. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved 2014, December from:

Friday, December 5, 2014

Testing for Intelligence

With what I have learned in my previous Foundations of Early Childhood and in this class, I have formulated what I would do if I were to be a classroom teacher.

The American goal of an assessment seems to ensure that students are performing on par and on grade-level. And if a child is not performing grade-level, then the goal would be to seek the cause of the poor performance. This becomes the mindset of the teacher or the specialist doing the assessments.

If I were a teacher, I would sit down with each child and find out what makes the child tick. I would have a conversation with the child where I would ask questions such as “what is your favorite activity in school?” or “what do you like to do when you are home?” For some children, this could be the only time anyone ever pays undivided attention to them.

I would help them achieve their wishes, dreams, or goals. If a child expresses concern about an external issue, I would work with the school social worker to see if we could help with the child’s concern. I recall my son’s preschool teacher asking me if she could work with my son’s speech skills one-to-one after school because she intuitively thought his speech skills were causing him anxiety. She would discuss the class schedule for the next day, so my son didn’t struggle to understand.

For other students who might be struggling or bored or not performing, a teacher can find out what the student is passionate about and find ways to utilize the student’s passion in the classroom. It is also important that the teacher knows the child beyond the classroom. The teacher would know who lives in the child’s home; that both parents work hard and that the student is home alone a lot. Find out what the child is wanting to do and assist the child in achieving what he/she wants. For example, if a child wants to write a story but doesn’t know how, the teacher can help the child break down writing tasks. Likewise, the teacher can ask the child how the child feels about the subject that the child is not doing well. The answers they give can be revealing.

This kind of involvement during an assessment is holistic in that both the teacher and the child become aware of the child’s strengths and weaknesses. The teacher can then design individual-directed instruction to accommodate the child’s needs. The child learns to solve problems with guidance of the teacher. To have a conversation with each child and discuss their thoughts is one of the more holistic ways to assess them.

The Ministry of Education in Singapore has a website about holistic assessment. Their key focus when their children are in Primary 1 and 2 is building the children’s confidence and desire to learn. The parents would get assessments on the learning progress of the child and the strengths and weaknesses. They would also get suggestions on how to improve their children’s learning.

Googling for holistic assessment of children, I found articles on holistic assessment for children in Pakistan, Australia, and for DeafBlind children in London, but nothing for the United States. It is interesting to see the goals in Singapore of Primary 1 and 2 are to build children’s confidence and desire to learn. I remember my son’s Kindergarten teacher telling me that her job is to get her Kindergarten children ready to learn. Is that the same as having confidence and desire to learn? I have been thinking a lot about this question and wondering if the United States can adopt holistic approach to educating our children.

Our school district has a special K-6 program called Global Education where they have multi-grade classrooms – K-1; 1-2; 3-4; 5-6 grades and taught in English only and English & Spanish. It was set up as an alternative school by the parents in the early 1970’s (I picture them as hippie parents, but don’t know if that’s true!). The entire program is based on a developmental approach in individualized education.

This is also the program that prompted my daughter to proclaim her desire to become an Egyptologist during her 6th grade graduation. In her college essay, she wrote how she had wanted to study Archaeology ever since she as a third-grader participated in an archaeological dig as a part of their study of ancient civilizations. Incidentally, my daughter went on an archaeological dig in Israel last summer as part of her college graduation requirement.

The Global Education is a program for only 200 students within the traditional K-6 school district. Why did not the school district have Global Education program for all students? Would it be because it is not conventional or traditional American education?


Global Education Program (December 2014) Skyline School. Retrieved from:

Holistic assessment: More holistic assessment to support learning. (2014, December) Parents in Education. Retrieved from:

Friday, November 21, 2014

Consequences of Stress on Children's Development

“In a country that emphasizes the importance of family unity in the socialization and upbringing of its children, an immigration system that promotes family separation is a broken system.” (Kremer, et al, 2009)

“The President asked Homeland Security Secretary Johnson and Attorney General Eric Holder to undertake a rigorous and inclusive review to inform recommendations on reforming our broken immigration system through executive action.” (Homeland Security, 2014)

(I wrote this blog before President Obama announced the new amnesty program for the immigrants. It looks like only 4.4 million of them will benefit from the new amnesty, and that includes children which is good news.)

Immigration is a thorny issue in America and especially in the Southwest near the United States and Mexico borders. I never thought much about the immigrants and the living conditions they would endure. Today, I have been thinking biosocial, cognitive, and psychology impacts on those children.

When I was a child, I would see migrant workers passing through my Indiana hometown over the summers. They would find work on the numerous farms. Then, I would not pay much attention to them. Today, I wonder how many children fall through cracks from this kind of migratory lifestyle.

We have different kinds of immigrant families. There are families who have had been in the United States for years and have children. They live in constant fear that they would be caught and deported. They fear both work and home raids. Most of all, they fear separation from children as a result of raids. This has the most serious consequence on the children.

Kremer et al (2009) outlined the long-term biosocial and psychosocial harm to those children whose parents are deported:
1. The trauma experienced in the immediate aftermath of the enforcement deportation action;
2. The separation of the family due to the detention and ultimate removal of a parent;
3. Devastating and long-lasting financial and emotional harm on the children left behind;
4. Families left without their primary breadwinner, many consisting of stay-at-home mothers who themselves are undocumented and cannot work;
5. Those parents whose spouses have been deported have encountered significant difficulties providing even the basic necessities to their children;
6. Children who have been in school and doing well would become withdrawn and have setbacks in their academic progress; and
7. There would be significant increases in children’s anxiety, depression, feelings of abandonment, eating and sleeping disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and behavioral changes among children who have experienced the loss of a loved one or who witnessed the raids in action.

There’s a sizable Hispanic population in our small beach town. Their children go to our schools. The schools recognize that the children are under stress because of their parents’ poverty and medical or dental needs. In a school & church volunteer partnership, our community provides free medical and dental care at a local preschool for all of the Hispanic families living in our community. Our church provides after-school and evening tutoring not only for students but also English classes for the parents so that the families stay together. Our church also has a breakfast, homework, & mentoring club at the middle school.
I don’t know if all that compensates for the stress those children endure in their lives that should not be happening.

I am thinking of children who are suffering from the devastating spread of Ebola in Liberia and the surrounding countries. They are experiencing losses of their parents and extended family members. First, they try to take care of people who have Ebola and die from them. Then they experience people in protective clothing entering their villages and taking them away to unknown places.

There are 2.5 million children under the age of 5 living in areas affected by Ebola. (Save the Children, 2014) They are more able to survive the outbreak of Ebola. But they lose their parents to Ebola and the lives that they are familiar with.

Save the Children have a Ebola Relief Fund where we can donate. Although celebrities have donated a total of 354 million dollars, Bono, the singer, wrote in a blog:

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa -- and the world's inept initial response to it --shows how fragile we are on all fronts. Because the epidemic isn't just a failure of health systems in poor countries, or of leadership and coordination by wealthy ones, it's also a failure of our value system. If governments the world over had kept their promises to fight extreme poverty and diseases, the three countries most affected would have had stronger national immune systems.

In this region, they are suffering from more than just Ebola. They also suffer from war, poverty, natural disaster, hunger, chaos, disease, and violence. Those stressors impede the normal biosocial and psychosocial developments in ways that would be impossible to gauge.


Bono. (November, 2014) Ebola is what happens when promises are broken. The Huffington Post. November 20, 2014. Retrieved from:

Fixing our broken immigration system through executive action: key facts. (2014) Homeland Security. Retrieved from:

Kremer, J. D., Moccio, K. A., and Hammell, J. W. (2009). Severing a Lifeline: The Neglect of Citizen Children in America’s Immigration Enforcement Policy. A Report to the The Urban Institute. Retrieved from:

Save the Children’s Relief Fund. (November 2014) Retrieved from:

Saturday, November 8, 2014

Public Health Issue: Literacy Promotion

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is currently engaged in literacy promotion as an essential part of pediatric well-child visits.  AAP has engaged in a number of researches that shows that literacy is an important public health issue that involves literacy skills, brain development, and parent-child relationships. (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2014)  Reading statistics in the United States are not the best they can be when comparing with reading scores of other countries.  The Academy is also fully aware of the competing interests such as electronic media and limits such as parental awareness.

Although AAP is focused on literacy promotion, American Academy of Pediatrics (2014) also states:

 Promoting literacy with parents of children beginning in infancy supports the recommendations of the AAP that children younger than 2 years not view electronic media and that older children and youth have no more than 2 hours daily of media exposure by offering parents a positive alternative for entertaining young children, for nurturing early relationships, and for developing healthy bedtime routines. (p. 5)

When families with infants and young children visit the participating pediatricians, they will hear a discussion and encouragement that they read to their infants.  They also have partnered with a non-profit organization, Reach Out and Read (ROR) who is presently actively promoting literacy among underrepresented minorities such as American Indian, native Hawaiian, and Alaska native populations. They are also working with military families, libraries, and schools.

One in three American children start Kindergarten without language skills needed to learn how to read. (AAP, 2014)  Reading with infants and younger children are associated with improved preschool language and literacy skills.  Children at 3 years old are more talkative than those that were not read to.

We have seen statistics often.  Children from families of poverty know and speak fewer words than those children from well-off families.  Sometimes, even well-off families have plenty of books at home but do not read directly with their children.  AAP wants to encourage all families to sit down, read, and engage in one-to-one conversations.  It has been suggested that a students’ reading skills at third grade is an indicator of their future academic success.

We studied in this class how this type of conversation with an adult stimulates brain development.  The more fully developed a brain is, the better the adult can function in the world. Another reason why literacy is important for adults is when they can read about their own health issues. If they are not literate, they are unable to read medical information that can save their lives.

Ultimately, every person wants a healthy relationship with one’s parent. When parents and children are engaged in book reading, it promotes a healthy relationship where they can both communicate their emotions, dreams, and expectations.  This communication between parent and child can be extended to family members and into the community when children become adults and participating as full members of the American society.

5,000 pediatricians have voluntarily participated in field-testing and created a set of recommendations for the literacy promotion. They came up with the following 5 recommendations:
1.     Advising all parents that reading is healthy;
2.     Counseling parents about developmentally appropriate reading activities;
3.     Providing developmentally and culturally appropriate books
4.     Providing additional information about libraries, materials and tookits that could help parents without resources.
5.     Partnering with other child advocacy organizations to promote literacy.

In support of school readiness, they also promoted with their patients the following 5Rs:
1.     Reading together as a family
2.     Rhyming, playing, talking, singing, and cuddling together
3.     Routines and regular times for meals, play, and sleeping which help children to know what to expect and what is expected from them.
4.     Rewards for everyday successes;
5.     Relationships that are reciprocal, nurturing, purposeful, and enduring.

Those are the foundation of a healthy early brain and child development. (AAP, 2014)

When the reading scores of the United States compare with the rest of the world, we are not performing up to par. The top seven countries are in Asia.  The top is technically not a country but a city in China.  Shanghai has a mean reading score of 570.  The United States ranked 36th with a mean reading score of 498. (Sedghi et al, 2014)

I had always believed that language and literacy are two of the important springboards to personal and life accomplishments.  In 1997, I was one of the four founders of an organization that promoted language and literacy.  We called it Alliance for Language and Literacy for Deaf Children (ALL for Deaf Children).  We sponsored a monthly book reading at libraries and bookstores, a quarterly lecture series with professionals, and holiday parties for all families with Deaf children and with Deaf parents with hearing children.

Language acquisition, language development, and literacy of Deaf children are critically important, and yet, those are polarizing issues between the proponents of spoken English and supporters of American Sign Language (ASL).  I would love to find ways to make both groups of supporters to collaborate more to benefit the Deaf and hard of hearing children who deserve to be in the center of the debate.


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2014) Literacy promotion: An essential component of primary care pediatric practice. PEDIATRICS. 134(2), 1-.6 doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1384

O’Keefe, L. (2014) Parents who read to their children nurture more than literary skills. AAP News. doi: 10.1542/aapnews.20140624-2)

Sedghi, A., Arnett, G., and Chalabi, M. (November 2014) Pisa 2012 results: which country does best at reading, maths, and science? The Guardian. Retrieved from:

Saturday, November 1, 2014


I appreciate the opportunity to go down the memory lane. Both of my children love hearing about their different birth experiences.

I was 36 when giving birth to my son, Matthew. I was the kind of parent who read everything in preparation for the birth. I gave up both coffee and wine.  I was 38 when I gave birth to my daughter, Tory. By that time, I was more relaxed and decided it was okay to have coffee during pregnancy. A funny thing happened as a result of that. Tory suggested that she’s smarter because I drank coffee during her prenatal development! It has become an ongoing debate between my two children – who is smarter and why!

During my first birth, after a few hours of labor, my doctor recommended that I get a cesarean birth.  By that time, both my husband and I were too tired to fight back.  The c-section was without complications. 

Two years later, pregnant with my daughter, I figured that I would be getting a c-section.  But, while in labor at the hospital a different doctor who was on call and was Vietnamese, urged us to consider a vaginal birth. I became petrified at the idea of having a VB. The doctor was persuasive, and we decided to brave it. Twenty minutes later, my daughter was in my arms. And, just one more fact, my husband fainted, and the medical staff had to tend to him.

A cesarean birth is different from a vaginal birth in many ways.  When I had my c-section, it was treated as a medical issue. I stayed at the hospital for five days while recuperating from my surgery. My baby boy was brought to me whenever I asked and not kept in the same room as me.

Whereas after giving birth to Tory in the afternoon, it was decided to keep me at hospital for an overnight. But early next morning, my doctor suggested I go home, and that was less than 24 hours! This was the last thing I wanted to do because, with my firstborn, we stayed at the hospital for five days.

During both births, neither my family nor my husband’s family was available to stay with us so we were practically all by ourselves. This was a little scary and hard, but we bonded as a family.

We also decided to read to our babies nightly from the day they both got home. This decision was a huge factor in my children’s excellent reading development.

My son is now 23 years old and teaching English in China. So, I decided to check out how women give birth in China.  It is awfully hard to keep my American cultural views at bay while researching for how babies get born in China.

I googled birth practices in China, and mostly I found blogs on the topic of expats giving birth in China. And some other blogs were more of an opinion. I questioned the validity of the information in most blogs. It did appear from further research that most of the world's births in the bigger cities of the developing worlds have adopted the Western notion of a cesarean birth. Seems like most births in China are cesarean. In more rural areas, there seems to be a lack of information about their birth practices.

There are both Western-style and Chinese hospitals. The first decision an expat would make is to decide which hospital you prefer to give birth. Then there is a list of advice for expats who opt to give birth at a Chinese hospital. “Cultural differences mean that expectant parents may need to be forceful to ensure that they get what they want.” (Giving Birth, 2014).  Then there is a list of  “what to take to hospital: food, bed linen, painkillers, entertainment, blankets and towels for the baby.” From another blog, at a birth at a Chinese hospital, the husband cleaned up his wife. Ugh.

One of their customs for Chinese women is to Zuo Yue Zi (“lay-in) where women follow rules for a month after giving birth. The rules include no hair washing, no shower nor washing of any kind. Food has to be brought to her in bed. She must wear a hat to keep her head warm for a full month. She’s not allowed to expose her hands and feet. Women undergo Zuo Yue Zi so that “I will have less diseases in the old age.” Usually, the mother or mother-in-law will stay with the new mother.


Giving Birth. (October 2014). Angloinfo. Retrieved from:

Selin Davis, L. (2012). The best and worst places to give birth. CNN Health. Retrieved from:

Woods, J. (January 2013). 8 Lessons Learned about Giving Birth in China. Vagabond Journey. Retrieved from:

Friday, October 24, 2014

A Note of Thanks and Support

As you know, I started this graduate program with no Early Childhood Studies experiences. All I brought was my personal experiences.  And you have welcomed me and made me feel that I had something to contribute to the class. You would also affirm my passions for advocacy. I feel grateful for that.

First thing I noticed about my colleagues in Foundation: Early Childhood class was the passion that you classroom teachers have for the children, for their families, and for the community at large. You showed me what a dedicated teacher looks like.  

I did not know what to expect, but I was also astonished at the “breadth and depth” of your knowledge. Your base of knowledge is already high, and you are learning more to become better professionals. It cheers me to know that after we get our MS degree, we will be out there making positive changes in our respective communities.

Because my degree specialization will be Public Policy and Advocacy, I sincerely hope I will bump into some of you as we stand on the same advocacy soapbox! We might even collaborate on some research or papers; I would love that very much.

I thank Dr. Ferrari for her patience and persistence that we write a graduate-level paper with APA formatting. I am not there yet, but with her helpful notes, one day, you may see my name in one of those journals!

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Code of Ethics for Early Childhood Studies Professional

Both Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) have similar Code of Ethics. I picked the following codes of ethical conduct and outlined my reasons for choosing those ideals:

Core Value (NAEYC)
Appreciate childhood as a unique and valuable stage of the human life cycle.

I would think that this core value would be intuitive in our American society but is not yet a reality in our political sphere.  John F. Kennedy said, “Children are the world’s most valuable resource and its best hope for the future.”

Principle & Ideals: Children (NAEYC)
P-1.7 We shall strive to build individual relationships with each child.
I-1.3 to recognize and respect the unique qualities, abilities, and potential of each child.
I-1.4 to appreciate the vulnerability of children and their dependence on adults.

Building relationships with each child is the raison d’etre for the profession of early childhood education. If and when each of the early childhood education professionals has that “individual relationship” with each child, the outcomes would be phenomenal.

We must remain mindful that each child has qualities, abilities, and potential. Those traits are waiting for us to help bring them out. Most of all, we must recognize that each child is vulnerable and dependent on adults. You want to be the adult that the child can depend on for a life-long trusting relationship.

Principle (Collective)

P-4.11 When policies are enacted for purposes that do not benefit children, we have a collective responsibility to work to change these practices.

This is relevant to my goal of becoming an advocate engaged in public policy discourse.


NAEYC. (2005, April). Code of ethical conduct and statement of commitment. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from:

The Division for Early Childhood. (2000, August). Code of ethics. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from:

Friday, October 3, 2014

Resources for Early Childhood Studies

“Quality resources nourish professional wisdom.”
                               -Laureate Education, Inc. (2010).

Marla’s list of resources:
Pediatrician: T. Berry Brazelton:
Book: What to Expect the First Year by Sandee Hathaway, Arlene Eisenberg, and Heidi Murkoff
Book: Positive Discipline by Jane Nelsen

NAEYC. (2014, October). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. Retrieved from:
NAEYC. (2014, October). Where we stand on child abuse prevention. Retrieved from:
NAEYC. (2014, October). Where we stand on school readiness. Retrieved from:
NAEYC. (2014, October). Where we stand on responding to linguistic and cultural diversity. Retrieved from:
NAEYC. (2014, October). Early childhood curriculum, assessment, and program evaluation: Building an effective accountable system in programs for children birth through age 8. Retrieved from:
NAEYC. (2014, October). Early childhood inclusion: A summary. Retrieved from:
Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families (2014, October). Infant-toddler policy agenda. Retrieved from:
FPG Child Development Institute. (2014, October). Evidence-based practice empowers early childhood professionals and families. Retrieved from:
Turnbull, A., Zuna, N., Hong, J.Y., Hu, X., Kyzar, K., Obremski, S., Summers, J.A., Turnbull, R.,& Stowe, M. (2010). Knowledge-to- action guides for preparing families to be partners in making educational decisions. Teaching Exceptional Children, 42(3), 42-53.

International Support for Children’s Rights & Well-Being
World Forum Foundation. (2014, October). About Us. Retrieved from:
World Organization for Early Childhood Education. (2014, October). About OMEP. Retrieved from:
Association for Childhood Education International. (2014, October). Principles/Governance. Retrieved from:
UNICEF (n.d.). Fact sheet: A summary of the rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved from:

Early Childhood Organizations
National Association for the Education of Young Children:

The Division for Early Childhood:

Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families:

Harvard Education Letter:

FPG Child Development Institute:

Administration for Children and Families Headstart's National Research Conference:

Children's Defense Fund:

Center for Child Care Workforce:

Council for Exceptional Children:

Institute for Women's Policy Research:

National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education:

National Child Care Association:

National Institute for Early Education Research:

Voices for America's Children:

The Erikson Institute:

Child Study Journal
Developmental Psychology
Early Childhood Education Journal
Early Childhood Research Quarterly
International Journal of Early Childhood
International Journal of Early Years Education
Journal of Child & Family Studies
Journal of Early Childhood Research
Maternal & Child Health Journal
Multicultural Education
Social Studies
YC Young Children

Laureate Education, Inc. (2010). The resources for early childhood. Baltimore: Author.

Friday, September 26, 2014

Quotes from Early Childhood Education Professionals

This quote from Marian Wright Edelman is for both the education professionals and for us to remember as we educate the children.

“No person has the right to rain on your dreams.”

Other quotes attributed to Marian Wright Edelman (hard to choose just one or two!):

“Education is for improving the lives of others and for leaving your community and world better than you found it.”

“The future which we hold in trust for our own children will be shaped by our fairness to other people's children.”

“We do not have a money problem in America. We have a values and priorities problem.”

Dr. Rosa Milagros Santos, Dr. Angel Fettig, and Ms. LaShorage Shaffer wrote:

“Early childhood educators know that home is a child’s first learning environment...
By suggesting meaningful, fun, and engaging activities, early educators can play a critical role in supporting families as they support their children’s social-emotional development…
Strong parent involvement is linked to children’s school readiness – academically, socially, and emotionally…
The influence families and teachers have on children’s social-emotional development cannot be understated.”

Santos, R. M., Fettig, A., Shaffer, L. (2012). Helping families connect early literacy with social-emotional development. Young Children. 67(2) 88-93

“I see early childhood education, all education, really as a civil rights issue.”

-Renatta M. Cooper
Program Specialist, Office of Child Care
LA County Chief Administrative Office

Laureate Education, Inc. (2010). The passion for early childhood. Baltimore: Author.

“Teachers have a tremendous influence on their self-identities.”

“The preschool years are critical; they are the first, most fundamental period where children are in fact noticing who they are and are noticing the attitudes and stereotypes and the discomforts.”

-Louise Derman-Sparks
Professor Emeritus, Pacific Oaks College, CA

Laureate Education, Inc. (2010). The passion for early childhood. Baltimore: Author.

Sunday, September 21, 2014

Personal Childhood Web:

A mini-narrative about my childhood: I was born in 1955, and my mother stayed at home like most of the mothers from that time. Preschool was unheard of in my small hometown, La Porte, Indiana, although I know my oldest sister did attend a program at the local YMCA. And, so the people who nurtured and cared about me as a child were all family.

My father, Eugene John Hatrak
He had four daughters when it is common knowledge a father often wants at least one son. My father taught us sports and played with us whenever he was home from his factory job. He allowed me to help him do errands around the house. He was utterly patient with me when I wanted to help him. He explained stuff to me. He was so loving and had a great sense of humor. My father was loyal to a fault to Detroit Lions football team although the team was a terrible team. He told me, “I support Detroit Lions because they are underdogs.” That in itself speaks volumes about my father whom I love dearly and who still has influence over how I live my life today by being involved in community activism for the underprivileged Deaf children.

My grandma, Clarice Lorraine Herran (camera shy)
Because I am Deaf, I did not get to play much with neighborhood children who did not learn American Sign Language. When my mother or each of my three sisters were too busy for me who wanted to do something, I would then bike over to my grandmother’s house, unannounced. She was ALWAYS happy to see me and willing to stop whatever she was doing to be with me. We talked a lot, and talked about stuff.
Best part was when my father finished work, he would check to see if my bike was in Grandma’s front yard. If it were, he would stop by and pick me up. Seems insignificant a moment, but I remember those moments vividly.

Linda, Daphne, me, Kay
My Three Sisters:
Because of my enmeshed family, my three sisters are important in my childhood and still influence me in more than one way today.

Daphne: I learned how to cross cultures through my sister who is a hearing child of Deaf adults (CODA). I learned to dance from her. She would occasionally allow me to tag along with her!

Linda: she loved reading and telling stories, mostly to me. She also loved television although she couldn’t understand anything without captions that started in 1988. Never mind that, she used her imagination when telling me what the movie she was watching on TV was all about. On long and boring car trips, she would create oh so imaginative stories! She led me on many adventures as only the youngest sister would be game to.

Kay: we shared a double bed in an extremely small room. That would require a lot of love for her as an older sister to bear with a younger sister! She's always there for me when disaster struck me more than once!